Factors Associated with Readiness to Adopt Electronic Health Record in Professional Health Workers: A Meta-Analysis


  • Purwa Adrianta Wibawa Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Didik Tamtomo Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Bhisma Murti Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret




Background: The application of an electronic health record at a health service center is something that needs to be prepared so that such a system can be successful. This study aims to determine the factors that influence the readiness of EHR adoption among health professionals.

Subject and Method: This systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out using the PRISMA guidelines and the PICO model: Population: professional health workers, intervention: computer literate, computer access, high perceived benefit, high self-efficacy, EHR training, technical assistance, comparison: no computer literacy, no computer access, no perceived benefit, low self-efficacy, no EHR training, no technical assistance, outcome: readiness to adopt EHR. Articles are collected from databases like Pubmed, Google Scholar, Science Direct. The keywords used are "electronic health record" OR “EHR” OR “electronic medical record” OR “EMR” OR “electronic patient record” OR “EPR” AND “adoption” OR “readiness” AND “EHR implementation” AND “healthcare professionals “AND “Multivariate analysis”. A total of 13 articles met the inclusion criteria, namely full text articles with a cross-sectional study design, with a relationship size adjusted odds ratio (aOR). Data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3.

Result: Meta-analyses from Myanmar, Saudi Arabia, Ghana, Ethiopia, the Netherlands, and the United States showed that computer literacy (aOR= 1.67; CI 95%= 1.29 to 2.16; p< 0.001), computer access (aOR= 1.93; CI 95%= 1.41 to 2.64; p< 0.001), perceived benefit (aOR= 3.21; CI 95%= 2.27 to 4.56; p< 0.001), self-efficacy (aOR= 1.94; CI 95%= 1.37 to 2.75; p< 0.001), HER training (aOR= 2.20; CI 95%= 1.58 to 3.06; p< 0.001), and technical assistance   (aOR= 2.34; CI 95%= 1.26 to 4.35; p= 0.007) influenced in the readiness of EHR adoption in health professionals and it was statistically significant.

Conclusion: Good computer literacy, computer access, high perceived benefits, high self-efficacy, EHR training, and technical support increased the readiness for EHR adoption among professional health workers.


Keywords: electronic health record, EHR, medical records, health services, professional health workers.



Purwa Adrianta Wibawa. Master’s Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126, Indonesia. Email: purwaadrianta@gmail.com. Mobile: +62 821-3269-7209.


Abdulai AF, Adam F (2020). Health providers readiness for electronic health records adoption: A cross-sectional study of two hospitals in northern Ghana. PLoS ONE. 15(6): e0231569. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0231569.

Awol SM, Birhanu AY, Mekonnen ZA, Gashu KD, Shiferaw AM, Endehabtu BF, Kalayou MH (2020). Health Professionals’ Readiness and Its Associated Factors to Implement Electronic Medical Record System in Four Selected Primary Hospitals in Ethiopia. Adv Med Educ Pract. 11; 147–154. Doi: 10.2147/AMEP.S233368.

Biruk S, Yilma T, Andualem M, Tilahun B (2014). Health Professionals’ readiness to implement electronic medical record system at three hospitals in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 115. Doi: 10.1186/s1291101401155.

Berihun B, Atnafu DD, Sitotaw G (2020). Willingness to use electronic medical record (EMR) system in healthcare facilities of Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia. Biomed Res. Int. Doi: 10.1155-/2020/3827328.

Hoogenbosch B, Postma J, de Man-van Ginkel JM, Tiemessen NA, van Delden JJ, van Os-Medendorp H (2018). Use and the users of a patient portal: cross-sectional study. J. Med. Internet Res. 20(9).

Jawhari B, Keenan L, Zakus D, Ludwick D, Isaac A, Saleh A, Hayward R (2016). Barriers and facilitators to electronic medical record (EMR) use in an urban slum. Int J Med Informatics.94(3):-246–54. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.-2016-.07.015.

Kim J, Ohsfeldt RL, Gamm LD, Radcliff TA, Jiang L (2017). Hospital characteristics are associated with readiness to attain stage 2 meaningful use of electronic health records. TJ Rural Health. 33(3), 275-283. Doi: 10.1111/jrh.12193.

Maryati W, Murti B, Indarto D (2016). Factors Affecting the Quality of Diagnosis Coding and Medical Record at Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta. J. Health Policy Manag. 1(2);88-89. Doi: 10.26911/thejhpm.2016.01.02.01.

Ngusie HS, Kassie SY, Chereka A, Enyew EB (2022). Healthcare providers’ readiness for electronic health record adoption: a cross-sectional study during pre-implementation phase. BMC Health Serv Res. 282. Doi: 10.1186/s1291302207688x

Oo HM, Htun YM, Win TT, Han ZM, Zaw T, Tun KM (2021). Information and communication technology literacy, knowledge and readiness for electronic medical record system adoption among health professionals in a tertiary hospital, Myanmar: A cross-sectional study. Plos one. 16(7). Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0253691

Pradnyantara IGANP, Murti B, Tamtomo D. (2022). Readiness of Application of Electronic Medical Records in Bethesda Lempuyangwangi Hospital, Yogyakarta. J. Health Policy Manag. 7(2);149–157. Doi: 10.26911/thejhpm.2022.07.02.06.

Seha AN, Tamtomo D, Sulaeman ES (2018). Does Accreditation Status Affect Job Performance of the Electronic Medical Record Clerksat Community Health Center? J. Health Policy Manag. 3(1): 56-62. Doi: 0.26911/thejhpm.2018.03.01.08.

Shortliffe EH (2014). Biomedical Informa-tics: Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine. J. Biomed. Inform. 296.

Thapa S, Nielsen JB, Aldahmash AM, Qadri FR, Leppin A (2021). Willingness to use digital health tools in patient care among health care professionals and students at a University Hospital in Saudi Arabia: quantitative cross-sectio-nal survey. JMIR Med. Educ. 7(1);e18590.

Thit WM, Thu SWYM, Kaewkungwal J, Soonthornworasiri N, Theera-Amporn-punt N, Kijsanayotin B, Lawpoolsri S, et al. (2020). User acceptance of electronic medical record system: implementation at Marie Stopes International, Myanmar. Healthc. Inform. 26(3);185-192. DOI: 10.4258/hir.2020.26.3.185.

Tolera A, Oljira L, Amante T, Abaerei A, Shore H (2022). Electronic medical record use and associated factors among healthcare professionals at pub-lic health facilities in Dire Dawa, eastern Ethiopia: A mixed-method study. Front digit health. 4. 10.3389/-fdgth.2022.935945.

Yehualashet G, Asemahagn M, Tilahun B (2015). The attitude towards and use of electronic medical record system by health professionals at a referral hos-pital in northern Ethiopia: Cross-sectio-nal study. J Health Inform Afr. 3(1). Doi: 10.12856/ JHIA-2015-v3-i1-124.

Yilma TM, Tilahun B, Mamuye A, Kerie H, Nurhussien F, Zemen E, Mebratu A, et al. (2023). Organizational and health professional readiness for the imple-mentation of electronic medical record system: an implication for the current EMR implementation in northwest Ethiopia. BMJ Health Care Inform. 30(1). Doi: 10.1136/bmjhci-2022-100723.




How to Cite

Wibawa, P. A., Tamtomo, D., & Murti, B. (2024). Factors Associated with Readiness to Adopt Electronic Health Record in Professional Health Workers: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Health Policy and Management, 9(1), 102–118. https://doi.org/10.26911/thejhpm.2024.09.01.10